COTA Curriculum Details

280 Hour Academy Course Description

The 280 hour Correctional Officer Training Academy (COTA) seven-week program consists of 10 functional competency areas. The COTA is Arizona Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Board certified. Competency sections 1-9 are functional areas addressing knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to perform the duties of the Correctional Officer.

The Administrative / Personnel functional area is comprised of administrative, health and personnel areas. These include benefits advisement, orientation, TB tests, Occupational Health Unit in-processing, exam administration, graduation preparation and family orientation.

Instruction is enhanced by practical skills application and exercises in COTA's prison replica cells and dorm (cell block 9 or CB-9). Cadets also participate in field training at their assigned institution prior to Academy graduation. Cadets are eligible for up to 21 semester hours of college credit through Rio Salado College upon successful completion of the Academy.

Administrative/Personnel - 27.5 Hours


Commander's Welcome

The COTA Commander provides a formal welcome and overview of the Academy.



On the first day of class, Cadets are given an overview of their rights, benefits, duties, responsibilities and accountability as employees of the Arizona Department of Corrections. In-processing paperwork is completed.


Graduation/Family Orientation Open House and Tour

Practice exercises and formations are held on graduation day prior to the ceremony. Family time is allowed for cadets and their guests to tour the Academy. A formal commencement ceremony is conducted in the Academy auditorium. Guest speakers include distinguished, long-time department members. The final formation and dismissal is held at the end of the ceremony.


Examination and Review

Cadets are given an objective exam every week except during field training. The exam evaluates the mastery of each performance objective addressed during the previous week. Tests are scored with an optical scanner which completes an item and distractor analysis. Cadets must pass with a minimum overall average of 70%. Exams are reviewed with the Cadets. Any missed areas are explained and the correct answer provided.


Exits and Close Out Cadet Evaluations

The Class Sergeant reviews and closes out the PACE (Performance Appraisal for Correctional Employees) evaluation with the Cadets. Each Cadet completes a written evaluation of the Academy training and is given an opportunity to discuss any issues of professional importance with the COTA Class Lieutenant. Cadets are briefed on where to report their first day of work and any pertinent issues related to reporting. This session is designed as a positive starting point for the cadets to make the transition to the position of Correctional Officer.


COTA Rules and Regulations

A complete set of COTA Rules and Regulations is given to each Cadet. The Class Sergeant emphasizes key elements of the rules and regulations and goes over the reasons for the conventions. Cadets are advised of the expectation they will abide by all COTA rules and regulations.


Drill & Ceremony

This section introduces Cadets to basic military formations and movements as part of the Academy protocol. It is designed to reinforce the team building process


1.0 Ethics and Professionalism - 13.0 Hours





Employee Rules and Regulations

Instruction covers the statutes, policies, rules and regulations that govern the behavior of Arizona State and Arizona Department of Corrections employees. The benefits and rights that accrue to employees are covered in the ADCRR Employee Handbook which is provided and discussed in class.



Workplace Relations

This class examines issues in the workplace related to racial and sexual harassment as well as workplace violence. Cadets participate through reading scenarios in small groups and engaging in active decision-making and discussion.



Ethical Staff-Inmate Relations

Teaches Cadets the do's and don'ts of ethical staff/inmate relations as defined in ADCRR policy and the Arizona Revised Statutes. Acceptable and unacceptable relationships between staff and inmates, and inmate's families are discussed. The procedures which must be followed in the event a personal or family relationship involves an inmate or inmate's family are outlined. Cadets learn the specifics of what constitutes an inappropriate relationship, how it impacts the institution's security and the inmates, as well as the specific civil, job-related and legal consequences of engaging in inappropriate relationships.



Employee Grievance

This course identifies the philosophy behind and ADCRR procedures for solving employee problems or grievances. It includes grievable and non-grievable issues and identifies redress for issues covered by other appeal systems.



Professionalism and Ethics

This course provides Cadets with a basis for ethical decision-making by helping them identify the sources of their personal values and ethics and the differences and possible sources of conflict between personal and professional ethics. Cadets review source documents pertaining to ethical standards and the consequences of unethical behavior.



Uniforms and Grooming

This self-study homework describes ADCRR policy requirements on officer uniform and grooming. The goal is to ensure that Cadets present a professional image and are in compliance with uniform, grooming and appearance standards.


Formal Inspections

Formal uniform and room inspections.



Performance Appraisal for Correctional Employees

This self-study homework was designed for Cadets. The intent is to help them understand the performance appraisal system including the rating periods, planning process and the employee grievance procedure.



Administrative Investigations

Cadets are introduced to the role and function of ADCRR’s Administrative Investigations Unit (AIU) which is responsible for investigating staff misconduct. The most common types of investigations are referenced as examples.


2.0 Inmate Management - 31.5 Hours





Inmate Manipulation / Games

This course describes the manipulation and deception practiced by inmates primarily on staff, and identifies ways for staff to protect themselves from becoming victims. Cadets practice actual scenarios in class and in CB-9 to get hands-on experience dealing with inmate behaviors



Inmate Supervision

This course introduces cadets to the elements of basic communication and discusses barriers to communication. Key communications skills that should be used when resolving problems with inmates are listed as well as gender communication differences. Cadets will learn about visual and verbal clues that will identify potential crisis situations along with different communication techniques to diffuse a conflict or confrontation. Cadets will also learn how effective communication skills will enhance a safe and professional environment for staff and inmates.



Sociology of a Correctional Institution

In this self-study homework, all aspects of  institutionalization are discussed, including institutional behavior patterns of male and female inmates, problems unique to various groups, the “convict code,” basic prison vocabulary, male and female interactions and criminal activity within the institution. This assignment describes
the social structure of the institution emphasizing the unique culture of the correctional institution and its impact on staff and inmates.



Inmate Discipline

This course provides the managerial/legal framework for the inmate Discipline System, the process of discipline from the discretion of the Officer, through the rules of discipline, forms, hearings, and appeals. Specifically addresses the role of the officer in the process. It includes practical application in report writing and review and critique of actual disciplinary reports culled from the field.



Inmate Classification

This course identifies the inmate classification process and parole classification process as a part of the inmate management system. Explores and defines the role of the staff member in the process of classification. It relates the process of classification to the security, custody and control of the institution.



Inmate Grievance

This course covers the inmate grievance system. The ADCRR Policy on Inmate Grievances is explained and discussed as is the appropriate procedure for handling inmate grievances. Examples of situations are provided and Cadets learn that knowledge of the proper procedures can help them in the performance of their duties.



Inmate Programs

This course explains and describes the types and purposes of the ADCRR Inmate programs within the correctional system. Included are the major components of education programming in the corrections system, para-professional and other counseling available and programs of a recreational, social, religious, self-improvement, and health nature. The premise for treatment is based on the belief that people have the capacity to change their behavior if given the proper tools. The essential nature of teamwork between program and security staff is emphasized.



Discretion and Decision-Making

Cadets view video tape scenarios of typical situations that Officers must handle. Oral and written exercises provide Cadets with activities that assist them to explore the response options and the reasons for each. Cadets refine their ability to think on their feet, handle potential hostile situations and apply defusing techniques. Additional hands-on practice is given in CB-9, the simulator prison, using role plays and scenarios that Cadets observe and discuss.



Security Threat Groups

This course is designed to introduce Correctional Officers to the types of Security Threat Groups (STGs) found in Arizona Correctional Institutions, their history, and the problems they create. Cadets will also be introduced to Arizona Department Order 806 and the importance of documentation by Correctional Officers when encountering suspected STG activity. It introduces Cadets to the criteria used to validate STG members and the necessity of handling all STG related materials found during searches as evidence.



Working with Female Inmates

This course addresses legal issues related to the supervision of female inmates, the causes and consequences of inappropriate staff/inmate relationships and the impact upon staff, inmates, and institutional security. The concept of gender role expectations is introduced and instruction is provided regarding differences in male and female communication styles. Staff are introduced to the special needs of female inmates and specific requirements for their supervision as defined in CRIPA policy.



Gender Specific Intervention

This course addresses problems staff may encounter when supervising opposite sex inmates and times when they are most vulnerable to pressure from inmates. Cadets are provided with an action plan and offered techniques which might aid them in handling problems encountered when supervising inmates and introduced to personal and departmental resources they can use.


3.0 Legal Issues - 15.0 Hours





(a) Use of Force

This course provides the foundation for Officers to make decisions about use of force. It defines the ADCRR Use of Force Continuum and clearly details the philosophical expectations of ADCRR in the use of force. Staff and inmate safety is the essential concern in any use of force situation. Cadets are familiarized with ADCRR Department Order 804.07. Use of Force is examined in relationship to the use of emergency systems and non-violent crisis intervention. The instructional goal is to enhance staff safety, reduce the number of use of force incidents and minimize the future liability of ADCRR.



(b) Use of Force

This course is intended to provide practical use of force training for COTA cadets as well as a use of force review for correctional officers prior to weapons qualification. The Use of Force Continuum is presented as are guidelines for preventing escape. Scenario exercises are resolved by participants using the information provided in this course.



Victims' Services

This self-study homework is an introduction to victims’ rights, restorative justice and parallel universe. A brief history of victims’ rights is presented, Arizona victims’ rights are introduced and key terms are defined. The importance of victims’ rights is explored, and the function of the Office of Victim Services is described.



(a) Prison Case Law

This course provides cadets an introductory overview of prison case law with a particular emphasis on areas of legal liability for the correctional officer.  Cadets are provided a historical review of this subject matter for application to current operations as well as an understanding of emerging legal issues or future trends in order to be a more responsive corrections' professional.
General correctional legal issues, significant constitutional rights of inmates and common areas of potential liability for the correctional officer are also discussed.



(b) Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)

This course introduces the basics of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 and ADCRR policy requirements for the prevention and intervention of prison rape.



Preventing Employment Discrimination and Harassment

The Arizona Department of Corrections expects the highest ethical standards of honesty, integrity, impartiality and conduct of its employees in their interaction with inmates, offenders, other employees and the general public. This course focuses on creating a workplace free of sexual harassment and discrimination.


4.0 Communication - 17.5 Hours





Report Writing

Cadets are introduced to report writing and the use of proper and concise written communication techniques. The primary types of reports used in an institution are introduced. Cadets are taught how to complete both the common form reports and narrative reports. Correct spelling, punctuation and grammar are emphasized as well as the importance of the officer's observation skills. Report writing includes practical experience in completing the following ADCRR forms: Information Reports, Significant Incident Reports, Discipline, Memos, Property Inventory and Use of Force.



Tactical Communication

This course describes effective communication skills and how officers use them to gain the cooperation of inmates and their compliance with staff directives.



Radio and Telephone Communications

This course explains ADCRR and FCC regulations pertaining to two-way radio operation and use of 10-codes and the phonetic alphabet. Demonstration of correct use of radio communications equipment and proper telephone communication techniques are addressed. All Cadets are issued a radio to use and practice with during the Academy.



Communicating with the Public

This course is designed to impress upon participants the need to act and communicate in a professional manner in all interactions with co-workers and the public. It presents participants with specific methods to that end and incorporates a video of staff/public interactions for class analysis.



(a) Cultural Awareness Dimensions in Diversity

This course discusses ways that culture impacts interpersonal relationships. The strength of the diversity of the ADCRR workforce and importance of honoring that diversity to build a stronger agency is emphasized. Effective communication, which includes understanding different points of view, is discussed.



(b) Cultural Awareness - Inmate Culture

This course defines culture and explores its influence on individual behavior, specifically the inmate population. The curriculum identifies the diversity of ADCRR inmates and how the differences are intensified by the prison environment. Emphasis is placed on effective communication with the diverse inmate population and how crucial it is to the safety and security of the prison.



The Job of a Correctional Officer

This self-study homework is designed to present participants with a realistic view of the job of a correctional officer. Several institutional procedures are defined, and a typical day for a correctional officer at a given institution is examined in detail.



Effective Study and Note-Taking

This self-study homework provides the student with the basics for efficient study and note-taking techniques. Cadets are directed to their textbook which outlines methods for effective note-taking, improving comprehension, asking appropriate questions in class, reviewing notes, participating in group study sessions and preparing for examinations.


5.0 Officer Safety - 40.0 Hours





Preliminary Marksmanship and Weapons Qualification

Classroom -  (a) Firearms Familiarization

This course introduces Cadets to the basic shooting principles of the primary weapons used by Correctional Officers. Sight picture, loading, unloading and the various shooting positions are covered. ADCRR Department Order 804, Use of Force, is reviewed and discussed during the classroom module.



(b) Handgun Qualification

Actual range training with a service handgun is provided. Each Cadet is required to fire a minimum number of practice rounds. This includes drills in possible weapon malfunctions and practice qualification courses The Cadet must demonstrate proficiency and achieve the minimum qualification score to successfully complete the training.



(c) Shotgun Qualification

Actual range training with a service shotgun is provided. Each cadet is required to fire a minimum number of rounds. This includes drills in loading and unloading.  The Cadet must demonstrate proficiency and achieve the minimum qualification score to successfully complete the training.



Chemical Agents

Cadets are instructed in the tactical and lawful use of chemical agents and the identification of major chemical agents by color coding and effect. Decontamination procedures for each chemical agent and the proper treatment for exposure are also covered. Cadets are exposed to CS and OC gas as a part of the familiarization process and are trained in the use of OC aerosols.



Target Identification/ Discrimination

This course shall discern whether the student has demonstrated the ability to:

  1. Make an immediate and accurate assessment of a given condition to determine the potential use of deadly force
  2. Make an immediate and accurate selection of an individual who may pose life threatening endangerment
  3. Immediately and accurately discern a life threatening individual and use reasonable force as may be necessary to establish control
  4. Make an immediate and accurate target identification under stressful conditions. The Cadet must successfully complete a block of shoot/don't shoot scenarios. Qualification will be pass/fail. Firing on the wrong target or failing to fire on a life threatening target will disqualify the student



Designated Armed Response Team (DART) Training

Lecture and intensive practical application to provide DART team members with the skills and tactics required to isolate and contain disorderly inmates. Instruction is presented within the context of the emergency systems and includes basic tactical formations, command and control techniques, crowd control techniques, weapons handling and deployment, deployment of chemical munitions and the actual firing of less than lethal munitions on the Defensive Tactical Weapons Course. Students will observe and simulate firing of specialty munitions and will observe deployment of selected live chemical munitions. Cadets participate in two simulated DART drills during the Academy.



Personal Protection

This self-study homework defines the need for making personal security a priority of ADCRR staff, and discusses tools to help maintain that security. Emphasis is placed upon safety concerns away from the institution and taking personal responsibility for individual security.


6.0 Applied Skills - 47.0 Hours






Searches and Contraband

Contraband is defined according to ADCRR Policies and State Law. Included are common methods of introducing contraband into a facility, the differences between nuisance and hazardous contraband, the Correctional Officer's role in controlling contraband and the impact of drugs and contraband in prison. Explanation is given on the types of searches allowed and the circumstances under which each may be conducted, per applicable ADCRR Policies. Also included are the impact of the Fourth Amendment and related court cases on searches of inmates and their cells and the conditions under which inmates, their visitors, volunteers and ADCRR employees may be subjected to searches. Search techniques are demonstrated and Cadets conduct the various searches utilizing the prison simulation cells and day room.



Transportation and Restraints

Describes the methods used for transporting inmates, the steps to be completed prior to transportation, restraint requirements in terms of custody level, ADCRR Policy, safety factors and the different types of restraints and when and how they are used. Application of waist-chains and leg irons is demonstrated and Cadets are taught to apply restraints safely. Numerous practical application drills and scenarios are conducted in the prison simulation cells and day room



Count Procedures

This course introduces Cadets to the function of accountability and counts as the major means used to maintain custody. The different types of counts; formal, informal and emergency are detailed and demonstrated. Also discussed are A-Z rosters and health and welfare checks. Cadets practice doing counts during meal times in the dining hall and during scenarios in prison simulation cells and day room.



Field Training

Cadets demonstrate practical application of skills learned in all training modules; effective security, custody and control, restraints, searches, supervision, inmate property management and counts. Cadets work two full days at the actual institution they will be assigned to when they graduate COTA. This gives them an opportunity to become familiar with the complex and the staff they will be working with. Cadets are assigned a Field Training Officer (FTO) and work under their supervision to successfully complete a checklist of skills and related learning items. Includes brief review of the FTO experience.



Cell Extractions

Cadets will learn the circumstances under which cell extractions might be conducted as well as examine the "use of force" considerations and the important safety aspects. They will practice a "walk through" cell extraction in the simulator cells. Scenarios are included to give the Cadet an opportunity to practical the skills they have learned.



Progressive Maximum Restraints

Cadets are instructed in the legal application of maximum restraints according to ADCRR Policy. Instructors will demonstrate how restraints are applied. Cadets are given an opportunity to apply the restraints under supervision of the instructors.



Inmate Property Management

This course introduces Cadets to the treatment and management of inmate property per ADCRR policy. Instruction specifies limits for allowable property, methods of accountability of inmate property to include an inmate's personal property inventory and when, where and how an inmate property inventory is conducted. Emphasis is on conducting accurate property inventories and proper completion of all accompanying paperwork. Scenarios and practical exercises are included during simulated inmate property inventories in CB-9 using actual inmate property items.



Inmate Urine Collection

This course is designed to aid in the standardization of methods and documentation procedures used to collect urine from ADCRR inmates. It emphasizes the importance of following correct collection procedures, "chain of custody" and the correct way to complete all paperwork. The course is designed to improve the enforcement of the "No Inmate Drug Use" policy.



Defensive Driving / Van Dynamics

This course teaches the fundamentals of safe driving to all staff that will use a state vehicle.  It discusses traffic law, the human and legal aspects of defensive driving and the risks of driving a van.  The course requires participants to demonstrate the ability to control a van during a practical driving test.  The goal of this class is to reduce van accidents and increase the safe driving practices of ADCRR staff.



7.0 Security, Custody & Control - 21.0 Hours






Security, Custody and Control

This course presents the criteria for custody levels of inmates. It describes the operations and physical layout of the institutions by custody level and the general security systems. Also addressed are Tool and Key Control procedures within institutions and work programs. ADCRR Policy is reviewed as to legal issues relating to mail and property. Cadets are exposed to the staffing levels in institutions and the process by which management determines where Correctional Officers will be reassigned if needed when levels fall below proscribed staffing levels.



Emergency Procedures/ICS

The Incident Management System (IMS) standardizes ADCRR response to, management of and reporting of all incidents from minor to major. It is taught to COTA cadets as part of their introduction to management and response issues in general emergencies, disturbances, hostage situations and inmate escapes. The IMS is applied to each and all of these situations. Cadets engage in IMS simulation drills throughout the Academy.



(b) Surviving Hostage Situations

This course gives participants knowledge, skills & attitudes necessary for staff to survive a hostage situation with the least amount of physical and/or mental injury possible. The 4 types of hostage takers and those who may be at risk of being taken hostage are identified. It discusses the four primary goals of ADCRR in a hostage situation, the Stockholm syndrome and participants are given information to assist them in becoming a survivor vs. a "Victim". 



(c) NIMS

Self-study homework:

ICS-100: Introduction to Incident Command System: ICS 100, Introduction to the Incident Command System, introduces the Incident Command System (ICS) and provides the foundation for higher level ICS training. This course describes the history, features and principles, and organizational structure of the Incident Command System. It also explains the relationship between ICS and the National Incident Management System (NIMS).

IS-700: National Incident Management System (NIMS), An Introduction: This course introduces and overviews the National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS provides a consistent nationwide template to enable all government, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together during domestic incidents.

IS-800: National Response Framework, An Introduction: The course introduces participants to the concepts and principles of the National Response Framework.



Crime Scene Protection

Cadets are provided instruction on the initial steps to follow upon discovery of a potential crime scene. They learn how to identify possible evidence, preserve evidence at the scene of a crime and the legal requirements of crime scene protection. They are taught how to seal off and manage the crime scene.



Fire Prevention and Evacuation

In this self-study homework, Cadets are instructed in the different classes of fires, the hazards associated with fires and basic prevention and evacuation procedures. They are also instructed in the use of the Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus (EEBA), usage covered per DO 404, Fire Safety and Loss Control, effective March 2002.



Protective Segregation

This Policy-based lesson plan is an introduction to Protective Segregation and a detailed explanation of ADCRR Policy. Cadets learn to respond immediately to a protective segregation issue and what their role is.


8.0 Conflict and Crisis Management - 28.0 Hours






Non-Violent Crisis/Conflict Management

The class introduces Cadets to the concept of non-violent crisis and conflict intervention in correctional institutions. The course provides them with a basic overview of how to affect positive, non-forceful solutions to crisis and potentially violent and violent conflict in a correctional setting using basic intervention techniques. The goal is to instruct Cadets on how to safely intervene in a crisis situation and how to view crisis as an opportunity to effect positive change. Focus is upon safety for all involved. Focus is in these content areas:

  • Crisis and Conflict in Corrections (Introduction) (4.0 hours)
  • Goals and Concerns of Non-Violent Conflict Management (2.0 hours)
  • Principles and Techniques of Conflict / Crisis Management (6.0 hours)
  • Practical Application and Practice (3.0 hours)




Critical Incident Response Team (CIRT)

This self-study homework presents a brief introduction to ADCRR's Critical Incident Response Team (CIRT) program.  Included in this training is information on how CIRT interfaces with IMS, the types of incidents that require a response from CIRT members, and how to access CIRT. Scenarios of critical incidents describing actual events are presented and discussed.



Self-Defense Training

This course addresses the issues surrounding necessary and legal self-defense in a correctional environment. Self defensive strategies are the last resort aspect of crisis management. Cadets practice techniques and gain the knowledge necessary to protect themselves and/or others when confronted by a physically violent inmate. Practical demonstrations and hands-on practice is a vital component of this training. This training is throughout the 9 week academy which provides a more in-depth and lasting skill set that Cadets will take with them on the job.


9.0 Medical and Mental Health Issues in Corrections - 38.5 Hours







CARE (Correctional Analysis and Response to Emergencies) is a basic rescuer course utilizing a chain of survival which teaches prioritizing actions. The course deals specifically with Corrections issues and includes assessment, ICS, securing the scene, the primary survey, injuries/illnesses, the medical notification process and the use of Naloxone (NARCAN). Participants will demonstrate competence in infant, child and adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation and foreign-body airway obstruction.



Communicable Disease

This course describes the infection cycle, universal precautions and prevention measures for tuberculosis, hepatitis A, B, C and HIV and MRSA. It identifies the employee's responsibility for reporting hazardous exposures and follow-up procedures to acquire Post-Exposure Prophylaxis. It explains procedures for cleaning up biohazard spills and the role of the Occupational Health Unit.



Alcohol & Other Drugs

This class provides Cadets with the knowledge to identify the signs and symptoms of drug/substance abuse among adult inmates. Includes the different types of narcotics, drugs, and substances abused in prisons and what the impact of those substances could be to include, mood changes, overdose, extortion, debt, violence and threat to the safety and security of the institution.



Alcohol and Drugs in the Workplace

This self-study homework examines the safety and security issues caused by staff use of alcohol and illegal drugs in the correctional environment. The cause of staff abuse of drugs is studied and the impact on the institution so as to develop a personal plan for each Officer so they can avoid being part of the problem (as when they ignore signs and behaviors indicative of substance abuse at work).



Physical Fitness Training

This course introduces Cadets to the F.I.T.T. (Frequency Intensity Time Type) principals for physical exercise. It emphasizes the importance of adopting and maintaining a physical fitness program as a means of reducing stress and promoting health and safety. Cadets must participate in flexibility, strength and aerobic conditioning exercises (push-ups, sit-ups, calf raises and running) and pass a mandatory physical fitness evaluation.



Introduction to Health Services

The class gives an overview of the Inmate Health Services Division discussing its structural design and functions within the Arizona Department of Corrections. It reviews the importance of delivery of health care to inmates as a constitutional right and the Correctional Officers' role in accomplishing this task. The instructor discusses the role of the Occupational Health Unit and the services provided to a Correctional Officer to help them maintain their personal health.



(a)Signs & Symptoms

This self-study homework provides an overview of mental disorders and the management of the mentally disordered inmate. A practical exercise is used to practice recognizing signs and symptoms of mental disorders and referral strategies. It emphasizes the major categories of mental disorders and the multiple areas of life affected by mental disorders.



(b) Suicide Prevention

This course is designed to assist cadets in recognizing and responding to inmate behaviors, which suggest that the inmate is at risk for attempting suicide. The course will teach cadets about inmates who may be at risk for suicide; high risk times; locations and methods; incidents and situations that may trigger a suicide attempt; possible signs of suicidal intent; the role of ADCRR staff in preventing suicide; and how to cope with attempted or completed suicides.